Human dignity and ecological sustainability in a fruitful brazilian arid zone

VERSÃO EM PORTUGUÊS

CONTACT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

AUTHORS

INTRODUCTION

HISTORY

OBJECTIVE

JUSTIFICATION

METHODOLOGY

WORKING TEAM

INCOME/EXPENSES

BIBLIOGRAPHY

ABESRAN

ARBORIZATION FOR THE BRAZIIAN ARID ZONE: 

  MP-Y:  SOCIO-ECOLOGICAL  PROJECT

 

“60 thousand square kilometers of productive land are lost every year in the world for the same reason: disordered and predatory occupancy of extremely  fragile from the environmental point of view regions”.

UN

 

 “Most scientists believe that just forests can suck from the atmosphere the polluted gases that intensify the stove effects and heat our planet”.

ISTOÉ, 2001, NOV., 14

 

“More than 18 thousand square kilometers of the Brazilian northeastern area already became deserts. Other 180 thousand are following the same way”.

VEJA, 1999, SEP., 01

 

ABESRAN

Proposal for the planting of two million fruit trees in a Brazilian area of five thousand hectares (12,355 acres) with semi-arid tropical climate by a work team of one hundred people.

Project number: MP-Y-01

Project duration: 10 years

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

 We thank to:

 Dr. Niède Guidon, Roberto Selig,  Ralf Rickli, Dr. Rex Nash,  Gianna Guiotto Testa, Roberto Guarilha, Zé do Rock, David Michael Muller and ABESRAN.

IN MEMORIAM

 MARGARITA PLAZA-YGLESIAS (1940-1985), PhD in Ecology, University of London,

 JOSÉ OCTAVIANO DE OLIVEIRA (1958-1991), Zoologist

and

SHEILLA FIALHO DE ALMEIDA (1957-1985), Agronomic Engineer.

 

 

AUTHORS

 (most current known information):

Consuelo Vargas-Prato (graduated in Philosophy at the Central University of Venezuela, with Bio-dynamic and Rural Development courses at Emerson College, Forest Row, Sussex, England) - Director of ABESRAN: BR-116 Km 89, 2, Soberbo, Teresópolis RJ 25977 390, Brazil, TEL:  + (21) 2642 0791, Email: arborizar@yahoo.com.br (Information last revised: 7-JUL-01).

Leonardo Andreas Jansen (Dentist, graduated at the University of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with two (02) post-graduation courses) - rua São Francisco 645, Teresópolis, RJ, Brazil, TEL: + 2642 3352, Email: leojansen@bol.com.br (Information last revises: 26-DEZ-01).

Naira Reyne Costa Andrade (graduated in Accounting Sciences - Auditor Qualification at the University of the State of Bahia, Brazil) - President of ABESRAN: Caixa Postal 93476, Teresopolis RJ 25961 970 Brazil, TEL: + (21) 2642 6862, Email: arborizar@yahoo.com.br (Information last revised: 8-JUL-01).

Rosana Bastos Ferreira (graduated in Pedagogy at the Universidade Católica  of Petropolis, RJ, Brazil). RG LP7501673/DEMEC/RJ.

Severino Martins de Sousa, (born and raised up in the rural area of  the arid state of Paraiba, Northeastern Brazil) - Treasurer of ABESRAN / Associação Beneficente São Raimundo Nonato, BR 116 Km 89, 4, Soberbo, Teresópolis RJ 25977 390 Brazil,  TEL: + (21) 2642 0791, Email: arborizar@yahoo.com.br (Information last revised: 7-JUL-01).

 

ABESRAN  

The Saint Raymond Neonate Beneficent Association (Associação Beneficente São Raimundo Nonato/ABESRAN) is an NGO legally created in 1995 and disposed to prove the possibility of transforming an unproductive area into a prosperous, rich and developed region through the implantation of the MP-Y Project and as trial to operationally defining Fritjof Capra´s ecological sustentabilily.

Natural resources* (Piauí throws away water) do exist to make the Northeast of Brazil a green and productive region and to maintain a healthy standard of living for the residents, without the necessity of their relocation to urban settings. But access to these natural resources depends on capital investments.

*Piaui throws away water

(Newspaper , Folha de São Paulo, May l9, l996)

A big part of one of the driest states of Northeastern Brazil, Piaui, lies on a sea of sweet water.

Two superimposed subterranean water systems assure wells that produce the whole year in a great part of the so-called Brazilian Dried Polygon.

In the southern part of the state, land owners drill wells for irrigation of small plantations. "There are wells by the dozens wasting water" says Esdras Pinheiro, geologist from Agespisa, the Water and Sewage System Company of Piaui.

The Violeta well, that spurted water up to 60 meters (almost 200 feet), is considered one of the biggest in Latin America. Since it was drilled, in the eighties, more than 70 bi liters of water were wasted in the arid zone of Northeastern Brazil.The geologist Aldo Rebouças, who researched about subterranean water in the region, says that Piaui has the second biggest basin of the country with a size equivalent to France. As in the rest of the country, the northeastern states don't have any control over the wells drilled there. "We don't know how many we have", agrees Pinehiro, from Agespisa.

 

MP-Y Socio-Ecological Project for Reforestation

INTRODUCTION

From the Brazilian area known as "Northeastern back country" with its semi-arid tropical climate, rural people emigrate in masses towards urban areas because of the "Drought" (period without any rain, which is more prolonged than usually). In the absence of an adequate water supply and due to other problems that tend to marginalize him from the economically productive circuit and to disqualify him as an agricultural producer and a citizen (Muller, l995), the northeastern man leaves his land and moves permanently to big cities like São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. This migration damages the organizational structure of the cities that, receiving millions of these people, suffer a collapse that finally degrades social statistics of the country in the world ranking (Gomes, l995). But, how is it possible to face this situation without falling into paternalism?

Natural resources do exist to make the Northeast of Brazil a green and productive region and to maintain a healthy standard of living for the residents, without the necessity of their relocation to urban settings. But access to these natural resources depends on capital investments.

 

HISTORY OF SIMILAR PROJECTS

After thirty (30) years of forestation, the PRODUCTOS FORESTALES DE ORIENTE / PROFORCA <http://www.proforca.com.ve> had transformed a five hundred thousand hectares (500,000 ha) semi-deserted area in the Maturin region of Monagas (Venezuela) into a dense forest which is considered today the largest one, in Latin America, created by men.

It has been stated that the failure in the conclusion of other similar projects is due to corruption, clientelism, indifference, incompetence and lack of planning (Dimenstein, l995), but no importance was given to very poor rural men  and womenpe and also land owners' idiosyncrasies, ideology and Cosmo vision. To keep men in the countryside, when there are so many attractive temptations in the cities, is the biggest challenge for any rural project. 

 

OBJECTIVE

 The objective of this project is the adoption of a poly-cultural system utilizing the agro-ecological technology of Biodynamic Agriculture (Steiner, l974), in the forestation of a 5,000 hectare area of semi-arid tropical climate over a ten years period by a working team of about 100 people, in two stages:

FIRST STAGE (lasting 3 years)

a) Elaboration and execution of the architectural sub-project (construction of the reservoir and of the residential complex).

b) elaboration in loco of the definitive project, after researching market data (consumer market, production flow, etc.) and agro-ecological conditions for production (adaptation of botanical cultures to environmental conditions).

c) elaboration of the educational sub-project.

SECOND STAGE ( lasting 7 years)

Planting of approximately two million trees and shrubs of native and exotic tropical genres, useful for shade, lumber, forage, green fertilization and especially fruit production, aiming for the commercialization of the production and the medium range self-sufficiency of the project.

 

JUSTIFICATION

 I - SCIENTIFIC:

It is important to establish fruit tree orchards, which will be useful for basic research on phenology, production, cultivation cares, etc., also being an accessible source of material for chemical, bromatological, propagation and other studies. Those orchards will also be useful for didactic and divulgation purposes through visitation of interested people (Carvalho, l996).

 II - ECOLOGICAL:

If the hydro-balance of a region is influenced by structural as well as functional characteristics of trees (Altieri, l989), the systematic cutting of the trees of the region known as the Northeastern Backland, has certainly contributed to the shortening of rain periods and the prolongation of the dry ones. Profiting from experiments realized in areas with similar lack of water supplies, using modern technology, like Israel, the only feasible way to stop a possible desertification process after 500 years of devastation (Furtado, l977), would be with reforestation.

 III - ECONOMICAL:

Native genres of products subject to practical economic exploitation will be preferred, counting on the good prices that tropical fruits have in the foreign market, to make the project self-sufficient at medium range, since general conditions of production show an enormous profit potential for the area chosen for the realization of the project, which is situated 215 Km from Petrolina (on the BA 235 well paved highway), the biggest fruit production center in the whole of Northeastern Brazil.

 IV - SOCIAL:

In order to maintain the interest of local residents (especially the adolescents) in continuing to live in the rural setting where they were born, instead of exchanging the soil for the asphalt of the big cities, these residents must perceive that their opportunities for complete human development are guaranteed locally, and that their cultural roots and identity have value. Thinking this way, the principal mechanisms to motivate local residents to assimilate this project as their own cause include:

a) Signing of labor contracts for every worker involved in the project, including all social and labor rights.

b) Payment of decent salaries.

c) Comfortable lodging.

d) Abundant meals.

e) Complete clothing and

f) Artistic, ecological, basic and professional instruction (intensively directed towards the implantation of similar MP-Y projects), in concordance with the guide lines of the pedagogic subproject to be made in loco aiming to follow the Waldorf education schedule (Lanz, l990).

 

 

METHODOLOGY

Dividing the daily time of each member of the working team into:

1) Time for learning or teaching: 4 hours / day.

2) Time for planting (or related activities): 6 hours / day.

Number 1) (time for learning or teaching) will be specifically detailed in the pedagogic sub-project.

Number 2) (time for planting) will be used according to the following guidelines:

Working the land from Monday to Friday during 6 hours daily, 2 millions trees will be planted in ten years, according to this scheme:

 

FIRST STAGE

FIRST YEAR: (six-person team)

a) DEMARCATION OF THE DIFFERENT LOCATIONS FOR PLANTING, ROADS, RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX, RESERVOIR, PLANT NURSERY AND COMPOST PILES.

b) PURCHASE OF MATERIALS AND MACHINES NEEDED FOR THE IMPLANTATION OF THE PROJECT.

c) PARTIAL ELABORATION OF THE PEDAGOGICAL SUB-PROJECT AND OF THE RESEARCH RELATED TO MARKET AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS.

With a team expanding to six people at the end of the first year and once the nearest city hall authorizes the demarcation of the area to be forested, (preferably a 7 Km square area, not invading national parks or environmental preservation areas); the highest point above sea level will be located, using an altimeter, in which location will be constructed the residential complex, with means for protecting this area from the discomfort of the typical hot weather of the region and also to facilitate the collection of the sewage. The first item to be constructed is a support structure for four tanks of one thousand liters of water each at a height of 4 meters. The residential complex is provided with:

a) Lodging for at least 100 people, in individual rooms each one with a bathroom;

b) Laundry;

c) Industrial kitchen;

d) Dining Hall;

e) Auditorium (multiuse space: for classes, meetings and shows with multimedia equipment, musical equipment, etc.);

f) Library;

g) Telecommunications Center;

h) Health and dental office with laboratory;

i) Sewing, hairdressing and other workshops;

j) Machine shop, carpentry, locksmith and other workshops;

k) Sports courts (soccer, 90 x 45 m; basketball, 225 x 15 m);

l) Plant nursery for 200,000 future trees;

m) Bee farm, aviary, dairy and vegetable garden;

n) Warehouse;

o) Garages;

p) Chapel.

All these parts of the residential complex (RC), except the plant nursery, the vegetable gardens and the sports courts, are distributed in 42 buildings of which 41 are 3 m wide x 16 m long and one building is 5 m wide x 35 m long. This last building corresponds to parts c), d) and e) of the RC (industrial kitchen, refectory/auditorium) and is situated North of the soccer court. 

Each one of the constructions has a men's and a women's lavatory, except bedroom-buildings which have 4 bathrooms each. The plant nursery is placed in 16 lines 1 m wide x 180 m long each North of

the RC and 14 lines (same size) South of the RC. The water reservoir is made up of 26 separate ponds (trenches) the inside of each lined with stucco (plaster) net and cement, with a total capacity of approximately 8,000 m3 of water. 14 ponds will be 1,20 m deep, 3 m  wide and 90 m long each, being West of the RC and 12 ponds, same deep, same wide but 100 m long each, East of the RC. This reservoir, shaded to avoid evaporation, is also used for growing fish.

 SECOND YEAR : (twelve-person team)

PARTIAL CONSTRUCTION OF THE RESERVOIR, RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX, PLANT NURSERY AND COMPOST PILES.

In the second year of the implantation of the project, the part of the reservoir West of the RC is to be constructed, as well as the first 10 buildings of the RC, these with pressed bricks made from the soil extracted from the cavities for the water reservoir and using the "Sahara" machines (concrete mixer and brick compacter).

THIRD YEAR: (twenty four-person team)

CONCLUSION OF THE CONSTRUCTIONS AND OF THE PEDAGOGIC AND AGRICULTURAL SUB-PROJECTS.

During the third year of the project, the construction of the reservoir and the hostelry (residential complex, see page 19) is to be finished. 150,000 cutting scions (baby trees) in the plant nursery should be ready to be transplanted at the end of this third year of the project.                                                    

SECOND STAGE

As specified in Table I: Distribution of species by lines, 14 different species are planted in parallel lines in an integrated system of production. The distance between lines is 5 m (in the line, the distance between trees is also 5 m). In an area of 5,000 hectares, there is space for 1,400 lines (each line being 7 Km long).

The determinant facts for the health and growing rates, as well as for the productivity of the system, is not the initial quality of the soil, but the composition and density of the plant community (Götsch, l996). That is why, of those 1,400 lines, only 100 of them will be of the same specie.

Each specie will be neighbour to other ones in 78 different combinations. This companionship among plants keeps away plagues and diseases and indirectly it influences the correction of the pH of the soil.

Of the 1,400 lines, each group of one hundred lines will contain one of the following 14 species (Carvalho, l996):

Acerola (Malpighia glabra)

Coconut (Cocos nucifera)

Date (Phoenix dactylifera)

Guava (Psidium guajava)

Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinenses)

Lemon (Citrus limon)

Mango (Mangifera indica)

Orange (Citrus siinensis)

Pine (Pinus elliottii)

Sapodilla (Achras sapota)

Tangerine (Citrus reticulata)

Urucum (Bixa orellana).

(This list could be modified during the definitive project, according to the results attained after market and ecological research).

In the tenth year of the project, the last 22 lines of each specie are planted according to the best development obtained in the preceding years according to their neighbors.

The trees can only be planted when the irrigation system most adequated to the soil conditions, preferably drip system, is functioning.

________________________________________TABLE I

DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES BY LINES

Acerola (Malpiguia glabra)

A

12-11-10-09-08-07-06-05-04-03-02-01

Coconut (Cocos nucifera)

B

11-10-09-08-07-06-05-04-03-02-01

Fig (Ficus carica)

C

10-09-8-07-06-05-04-03-02-01

Guava (Psidium guajava)

D

09-08-07-06-05-04-03-02-01

Graviola (Annomia muricata)

E

08-07-06-05-04-03-02-01

Mangostão(Garcinia-mangostona-L)

F

07-06-05-04-03-02-01

Orange (Citrus sinensis)

G

06-05-04-03-02-01

Lemon (Citrus limon)

H

05-04-03-02-01

Mango (Mangifera indica)

I

04-03-02-01

Pine tree (Pinus elliottii)

J

03-02-01

Sapoti (Achras sapota)

K

02-01

Date (Phoenix dactylifera)

L

01

Tangerine (citrus reticulata)

M

 

Urucueiro (Bixa orellana)

N

 

Exemple:

       H (lemon) is repeated 5 times every third row, being in the company of I (mango) in their  Northern side all five times, but in their Southern side being in the company of J, K, L, M and N successively. The same thing is then repeated but just 4 times (always every third row) being in the company of J in their Northern side all the four times but in their Southern side, being in the company of K, L, M  and N successively. Next, we repeat H again but just 3 times (every third row) with K at the North and L, M and N at the South. Then H is repeated just two times  every third row with L at North and M and N at South. Finally H is  planted with M at North and N at South.

 

FOURTH YEAR OF THE PROJECT: (thirty six-person team)

Planting of the first 150,000 trees (500 / day).

FIFTH YEAR: (forty eight-person team)

Planting of 200,000 trees ( 666 / day).

SIXTH YEAR: (sixty-person team)

planting of 250,000 trees (830 / day).

SEVENTH YEAR: (seventy-person team)

Planting of 300,000 trees (1,000 / day).

EIGHTH YEAR: (eighty-person team)

Planting of 350,000 trees (1,166 / day).

NINETH YEAR: (ninety-person team)

Planting of 400,000 trees (1,333 /day).

TENTH YEAR: (a hundred-person team)

Planting of 400,000 trees (1,333 / day).

WORKING TEAM

 The working team is composed of more or less 37 adults and 63 teenagers (trainees), mostly residents at the area surrounding the project location. They will fill the following positions:

YEAR ONE

One (01) Business Administrator, Head of the project, to direct its implantation, starting with the selection of the rest of the working team.

One (01) Agricultural Engineer.

One (01) Driver.

One (01) Excavation tractor operator.

One (01) Cook and housekeeper.

One (01) Educational Supervisor.

YEAR TWO

Six (06) bricklayers.

YEAR THREE

Twelve (12) bricklayers.

YEAR FOUR:

One (01) Dressmaker.

One (01) Cook’s helper.

One (01) Caretaker.

One (01) Portuguese language teacher.

One (01) Mathematics teacher.

One (01) Biology teacher.

One (01) Music teacher.

One (01) Cultural Animator/theatre teacher.

One (01) General medical doctor.

One (01) Dentist.

Four (04) Agricultural Trainees.

YEAR FIVE:

Twelve (12) Agricultural Trainees.

YEAR SIX:

Twelve (12) Agricultural Trainees.

YEAR SEVEN:

Ten (10) Agricultural Trainees.

YEAR EIGHT:

Ten (10) Agricultural Trainees.

YEAR NINE:

Ten (10) Agricultural Trainees.

YEAR TEN:

Four (04) Trainees.

 

INCOME AND EXPENSE PROJECTION

 Based on a minimum yearly production of one box per fruit tree, and estimating the minimum price per box at U$ 2.oo (two american dollars), there is to be obtained an income of U$ 4,000,000.oo (four million american dollars) per year. In this way the complete value of the investment is regained in approximately two years (after the conclusion of the implantation of the project).

Also, taking advantage of the constant sunshine typical of the region for natural drying of fruits as well as flowers, (considering here that fig, pine and hibiscus flowers are highly appreciated for their medicinal characteristics (Neto, l995)), with the commercialization of these by-products it is possible to recover the investment in just one and a half years.

The total investment calculated for the production of this income is U$ 7,990,732.oo (seven million nine hundred and ninety thousand seven hundred and thirty two american dollars) distributed according to the following plan: 

YEAR ONE

4 room house

Pick-up 4 wheel drive

Case 580 H. Excavation Tractor

Altimeter

Construction materials (iron, cement, etc.)

Fuel and oil

General maintenance 

Maintenance of machines & Equipment

Salary of Business Administrator

Salary of Agricultural Engineer

Salary of Cook and housekeeper

Salary of Driver

Salary of Excavation Tractor Operator

Salary of Educational Supervisor

Social and labor obligations

Meals

Sub-total year one

 

25,000.00

26,000.00

60,000.00

160.00

13,240.00

1,500.00

1,200.00

2,400.00

28,800.00

28,800.00

3,600.00

5,900.00

7,200.00

28,800.00

69,105.00

10,950.00

312,655.00

 YEAR TWO:

Concrete mixer & Brick compacter

Construction materials (iron, cement, etc.)

Other materials ( glazed tiles, etc.)

Fuel and oil

General maintenance

Maintenance of machines & Equipment

Water truck

Same salaries as Year One

Additional Salaries for six (06) Bricklayers

Social and labor obligations

Meals

Sub-total year two

2,800.00

12,000.00

138,400.00

2,500.00

1,500.00

2,800.00

60,000.00

81,300.00

12,600.00

79,815.00

21,900.00

414,615.00

YEAR THREE:

Drilling of wells

Pumping System

Irrigation system for 300 hectares

Construction materials

Other materials

Dump cart truck

Same salaries as Year Two

Additonal Salaries for 12 bricklayers

Social and labor obligations

Meals

Sub-total year three

30,000.00

7,000.00

114,353.46

24,000.00

96,850.00

60,000.00

93,900.00

25,200.00

101,235.00

43,800.00

596,338.46

YEAR FOUR:

Equipment for dentist office

Irrigation system for 500 hectares

Same salaries as year three

Salary for dressmaker2,400.oo

Salary for cook’s helper2,400.oo

Salary for caretaker2,400.oo

Salary for portuguese teacher

Salary for mathematics teacher

Salary for science & Biology teacher

Salary for music teacher

Salary for cultural animator

Salary for medical doctor

Salary for dentist

Additional Salaries for four (04) trainees

Social and labor obligations

Meals

Sub-total year four

17,700.00

190,589.00

119,100.00

2,400.00

2,400.00

2,400.00

10,880.00

10,880.00

9,000.00

9,000.00

9,000.00

26,000.00

26,000.00

8,400.00

200,141.00

65,700.00

709,590.00

YEAR FIVE:

Irrigation system for 625 hectares

Same salaries as year four235,460.oo

Salaries for 12 trainees25,200.oo

Social and labor obligations221,561.oo

Meals87,600.oo

Sub-total year five

238,236.37

235,460.00

25,200.00

221,561.00

87,600.00

808,057.37

YEAR SIX:

Irrigation system for 750 hectares

Same salaries as year five

Salaries for 12 trainees

Social and labor obligations

Meals

Sub-total year six

285,883.64

260,660.00

25,200.00

242,981.00

109,500.00

924,224.64

YEAR SEVEN:

Irrigation system for 875 hectares

Same salaries as year six

Salaries for ten trainees

Social and labor obligations

Meals

Sub-total year seven

333,530.90

285,860.00

20,000.00

259,981.00

130,000.00

1,029,317.90

YEAR EIGHT:

Irrigation system for 1,000 hectares

Same salaries as year seven

Salaries for ten trainees

Social and labor obligations

Meals

Sub-total year eight

381,178.00

305,860.00

20,000.00

276,981.00

150,000.00

1,134,019.00

YEAR NINE:

Irrigation system for 1,000 hectares

Same salaries of ear eight

Salaries for ten trainees

Social and labor obligations

Meals

Sub-total year nine

381,178.17

325,860.00

20,000.00

293,981.00

170,000.00

1,191,019.17

YEAR TEN:

Same salaries as year nine

Salaries for ten trainees

Social and labor obligations

Meals

Sub-total year ten

345,860.00

20,000.00

310,981.00

190,000.00

866,841.00

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Altieri, Miguel. Agroecology: Scientific Basis for an Alternative Agriculture. Rio de Janeiro: ASPTA, l989, 2nd ed.

 Bernat, Claire. Water Supply Technology. Rio de Janeiro, ASPTA 1992.

 Boom, B.K. and Kleijin, H. The Glory of the Tree. London, Harrp & Co. Ltd., l966.

 Carvalho, Jose Herculano de. Fruitculture in Northeastern Brazil. Teresina, EMBRAPA, l996.

 Coen, Reijnies. Water collection, a vision of various techniques. Holland, Ileia Newsletter, l986.

 Correia, M. Pio. Dictionary of Useful Plants in Brazil and Cultivated Exotic Plants. Rio de Janeiro, National Print, l978.

 Dimenstein, Gilberto . Industrial Dehydration. São Paulo, Folha de São Paulo, 12 of March, l995.

 Furtado, Celso. Economic Formation of Brazil, São Paulo, Cia. Ed. Nacional, l977.

 Gomes, Ciro. Solutions for Some Problems of the Northeastern Region. Rio de Janeiro, Jornal do Brasil, 11 of March, l995.

 Götsh, Ernst. The Rebirth of Agriculture. Rio de Janeiro, ASPTA, 1996.

 Hathaway, David et al. Biodiversity and Biotechnology. Rio de Janeiro, FLACSO, l993.

Lanz, Rudolf. Waldorf Pedagogy. Sao Paulo, Ed. Antroposofica. 1990.

Mutter, Theo. Associations. Recife, SACTES/DED, 1995.

Neto, Olinto Jose de Oliveira. Flowers Row. Sao Paulo, Ed. aquaiana, 1995.

Steiner, Rudolf. Agriculture. London, Bio-dynamic Agricultural Association, 1974.

Telcio, L.N. da Silveira. Organization of Associations. Rio de Janeiro, l992.

THE END

 OF

 MP-Y SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL PROJECT FOR THE ARBORIZATION OF A BRAZILIAN SEMI-ARID TWELVE THOUSAND ACRES LAND.